Forage Seed

At Landmark Turf & Native Seed, we offer stock specific forage seeds and mixes as well as formulations for low input naturalization. Seeds are professionally selected and intended to provide high yields with low management requirements. Our pasture formulations and mixes feature proven and reliable varieties intended to provide the nutrition your livestock needs while holding up to today’s intensive grazing methods year after year.

Annual Ryegrass

Annual Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, has an extensive, soil-holding root system and grows to a mature height of 10 to 36 inches. It is a fast-establishing, short-lived annual or biennial depending on climate and growing season, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses. As a cover crop, it establishes quickly even in poor, rocky or wet soils and tolerates some flooding once established. Annual Ryegrass is well-suited for field strips, grass waterways, or exposed areas. Its dense yet shallow root system improves water infiltration and enhances soil tilth. As a high nitrogen user, Annual Ryegrass can capture leftover nitrogen and reduce nitrate leaching throughout the winter. Annual Ryegrass is highly palatable and is relatively easy to establish so it can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. It is widely adapted and found throughout the entire United States. Common forage varieties of Annual Ryegrass include Madonna, Ration, and Westerwold. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-16

Gulf Annual Ryegrass

Gulf Annual Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, is a fast-establishing, cool-season grass for turf, forage, and erosion control uses. It is a short-lived annual or biennial, introduced bunchgrass. Gulf can adapt to a wide range of soils but thrives on dark, rich soils in regions with mild climates and can tolerate fairly wet soils with reasonably good surface drainage. It has a quick growing, extensive root system making it useful for erosion control and competition against aggressive weeds. Gulf is relatively easy to establish and can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. Gulf Annual Ryegrass is found throughout the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-16

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Crested Wheatgrass

Crested Wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought tolerant and winter hardy grass has a deep root system making it an excellent soil binder. Crested Wheatgrass is highly recommended for palatable forage production and is one of the most commonly cultivated grasses in the United States used for conservation and forage. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately coarse to fine-textured, moderately well to well-drained soils. Crested Wheatgrass is typically seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. Common varieties include Ephraim, Douglas, Kirk, and Roadcrest.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10


Festulolium, Festulolium braunii, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass. It is derived from a cross between Italian Ryegrass and Meadow Fescue. Its ease of establishment and management, drought resistance, rapid regrowth, and good disease resistance are combined with season-long productivity and high forage palatability. Festulolium has a mature height of 20 to 48 inches. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Forage Tall Fescue

Forage Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is very adaptable to soil and moisture types. It is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass that grows between 24 and 60 inches tall. This deep-rooted bunchgrass is used for pasture, hay, turf, and erosion control. Forage varieties include Fawn, KY-31, Malma, and Suede. It will grow fairly well on soils low in fertility but it is better adapted to fertile conditions. Forage Tall Fescue can be grazed closely and does contain endophytes. Adaptation regions include all areas east of the Great Plains except southern and central Florida. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Fawn Tall Fescue

Fawn Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is a cool-season bunchgrass growing taller than 24 inches. This Tall Fescue variety is used for its palatability, excellent spring vigor, and deep root system which produces a tough sod when seeded heavily and grazed or mowed. Fawn is tolerant of poor drainage, alkalinity and salinity, and is also drought resistant. Production of forage is abundant with irrigation and high fertility levels. Fawn is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. The most frequent use of Forage Tall Fescue is for beef cattle and horse pastures.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-25 (New Seeding), 10-15 (Overseeding) 

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Intermediate Ryegrass

Intermediate Ryegrass, Lolium hybridium, is a short-lived, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass growing 18 to 36 inches tall. It is the result of a cross between Annual and Perennial Ryegrass. Intermediate Ryegrass has a finer leaf texture, is very heat tolerant, and is less winter hardy but higher yielding than Perennial Ryegrass. It is used for grazing, as a rotation crop, or hay production in northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 153,280

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Intermediate Wheatgrass

Intermediate Wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. intermedia, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep-feeding root system, preferring well-drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate Wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils. Rush and Oahe are common Intermediate Wheatgrass varieties used for forage and reclamation purposes. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Meadow Brome

Meadow Brome, Bromus biebersteinii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that spreads by short rhizomes. Meadow Brome can reach over 24 inches and up to 72 inches in height when irrigated. It is primarily used for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow Brome is very winter hardy and it performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. It is used in cool, moist climates across the Northern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 85,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Medium Red Clover

Medium Red Clover, Trifolium pratense L., is a short-lived perennial of 2-3 years and usually produces 2-3 cuttings of hay or silage per year with the most aggressive growth in the spring. Medium Red Clover is an aggressive establisher and can be seeded alone, in mixtures with grasses, frost-seeded with a nurse crop, or interseeded into an existing stand. It has a mature height of 24 to 36 inches. Forage quality is comparable with that of Alfalfa under similar harvest schedule.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 260,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-12

Mountain Brome

Mountain Brome, Bromus marginatus, is a short-lived, perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It is less aggressive than Smooth Brome. Mountain Brome prefers deep, fertile, mesic soils of medium to fine textures, but also survives on thin, dry or coarse soils, resulting in lower production levels. It is winter hardy and has good shade tolerance and fair tolerance to fire. Mountain Brome is well-adapted to the Northwestern regions, the foothills and mountains of the Intermountain West, and some Midwestern States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 65,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Native Red Fescue

Native Red Fescue, Festuca rubra, is a low-growing shade and moist tolerant native grass. Native Red Fescue is sod-forming and has a mature height of 13 to 25 inches or more. It is used for the restoration of meadows and wetlands in the Northwest. It is considered to be native to the northern coastal regions of the United States but has been introduced throughout many other countries. It grows best in dry or wet habitats at elevations ranging from sea level to alpine in various soil compositions and fertility. Native Red Fescue is tolerant of shade and drought and is a very vigorous, dense native grass. Native Red Fescue can also be used as forage for cattle and horses. As a forage crop in alpine ranges, its foliage survives and retains its nutritional value through frost and cold temperatures. A common variety of Native Red Fescue is Molate.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 615,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 14-20


Orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata, is a persistent perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass, forming distinct flowering clumps 24 to 48 inches tall. It is one of the earliest species to grow in the spring making tremendous growth during cool conditions. It performs well on different textured soils ranging from clay to gravelly loams and on shallow to deep soils. The primary use of Orchardgrass is for forage production as it is highly palatable to all livestock. Common varieties of Orchardgrass include Latar, Paiute, Pennlate, and Potomac II.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 430,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-10

Perennial Ryegrass

Perennial Ryegrass, Lolium perenne, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass growing to a height of 18 to 36 inches. Perennial Ryegrass is one of the most widely used grasses and is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climatic conditions. With a leafy head and fine stem, it is considered very palatable and used for both forage and hay. Perennial Ryegrass is a proven performer in pastures in the northern area of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 227,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-8


Besides their use as an oil crop, Rapeseed, Brassica napus, and other Brassicas including Canola are also used for forage. If pest suppression is an objective, Rapeseed should be used rather than Canola since the breakdown products of glucosinolates are thought to be a principal mechanism for pest control with these cover crops. Rapeseed has been shown to have biological activity against plant parasitic nematodes as well as weeds. Due to its rapid fall growth, Rapeseed captures high amounts of residual nitrogen and accumulates significant amounts of above ground biomass. Common forage varieties include Hobson and Napoleon.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 157,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-10

Slender Wheatgrass

Slender Wheatgrass, Elymus trachucaulus ssp. trachycaulus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, tufted bunchgrass ranging in height from 24 to 30 inches. It has very short rhizomes which prefer loam and sandy loam soils. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the western United States and the northern Great Plains. Common varieties of Slender Wheatgrass include Firststrike, Pryor, and San Luis.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 135,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Smooth Brome

Smooth Brome, Bromus inermis, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass that grows 24 to 48 inches tall and spreads by rhizomes. Frequently the leaves are marked by a transverse wrinkle resembling a “W” a short distance below the tip. It is resistant to drought and extreme temperatures. Smooth Brome is the most widely used of the cultivated Bromegrasses and it is distributed throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 140,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12


Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, is widely cultivated as a grain and forage and is a drought tolerant bunchgrass type. It has a mature height of over 24 inches. It is typically used for milo grain production in the south and forage production in the north. Forage Sorghum is a hybrid with a very sweet stem, excellent leaf retention, and is highly palatable. Forage Sorghum has excellent foliar disease resistance and maintains a healthy canopy until harvest. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 16,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-40


Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids, Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanese, are unrivaled for adding organic matter to worn-out soils. These tall, fast-growing, heat-loving summer annual grasses can smother weeds, suppress some nematode species and penetrate compacted sub-soil if mowed once. Sorghum-Sudangrass makes highly palatable and nutritious forage for grazing or hay. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 20,000-22,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-40

Teff Grass

Teff Grass, Eragrostis tef, is a summer annual forage used by livestock and commercial hay producers for its fast growing, high yielding, and competitive forage qualities. Teff is a warm-season, bunchgrass adapted across the United States as dry hay, silage or pasture for dairy cattle, beef cattle or horses. It has a wide range of geographic adaptation, the ability to produce competitive yields with low inputs, and superior forage quality versus other summer annual species. It can self-pollinate and can be harvested multiple times with fast growth and high tonnage. Teff has a mature height of 36 to 48 inches. Teff is an excellent choice as an emergency crop when weather delays occur or as a rescue crop when perennials have failed. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,300,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7 (raw), 7-10 (coated) 


Timothy, Phleum pratense, is a relatively short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows in erect stools or culms 20 to 40 inches tall. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system which thrives best on rich, moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils such as clay loams. It does not do well on coarser soils. Timothy is palatable, nutritious, and primarily used for hay but also makes good pasture and silage. It has adapted to a cool and humid climate and is distributed throughout the entire United States. Common varieties include Clair and Climax.

Seeds/Pound (approximate: 1,165,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Western Wheatgrass

Western Wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12 to 36 inches tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium to fine-textured soils. It has adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. Western Wheatgrass is a good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, southwest, and Intermountain region of the western United States. Common varieties include Arriba and Rosanna.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 115,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10