Forage Seed

At Landmark Turf & Native Seed, we offer stock specific forage seeds and mixes as well as formulations for low input naturalization. Seeds are professionally selected and intended to provide high yields with low management requirements. Our pasture formulations and mixes feature proven and reliable varieties intended to provide the nutrition your livestock needs while holding up to today’s intensive grazing methods year after year.

Annual Ryegrass

Annual Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, has an extensive, soil-holding root system and grows to a mature height of 10 to 36 inches. It is a fast-establishing, short-lived annual or biennial depending on climate and growing season, cool-season grass for forage and erosion control uses. As a cover crop, it establishes quickly even in poor, rocky or wet soils and tolerates some flooding once established. Annual Ryegrass is well-suited for field strips, grass waterways, or exposed areas. Its dense yet shallow root system improves water infiltration and enhances soil tilth. As a high nitrogen user, Annual Ryegrass can capture leftover nitrogen and reduce nitrate leaching throughout the winter. Annual Ryegrass is highly palatable and is relatively easy to establish so it can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. It is widely adapted and found throughout the entire United States. Common forage varieties of Annual Ryegrass include Madonna, Ration, and Westerwold. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-16

Gulf Annual Ryegrass

Gulf Annual Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, is a fast-establishing, cool-season grass for turf, forage, and erosion control uses. It is a short-lived annual or biennial, introduced bunchgrass. Gulf can adapt to a wide range of soils but thrives on dark, rich soils in regions with mild climates and can tolerate fairly wet soils with reasonably good surface drainage. It has a quick growing, extensive root system making it useful for erosion control and competition against aggressive weeds. Gulf is relatively easy to establish and can be used for grazing, hay, silage, and conservation purposes. Gulf Annual Ryegrass is found throughout the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-16

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Creeping Meadow Foxtail

Creeping Meadow Foxtail, Alopecurus arundinaceus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming, grass that grows 12 to 24 inches tall. It is extremely winter hardy and recovers quickly from grazing due to its numerous aggressive underground rhizomes. Creeping Meadow Foxtail is palatable to all classes of livestock. It is most commonly utilized throughout the Pacific Northwest, Intermountain West, Northern Great Plain States, and Western Canada.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 785,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Crested Wheatgrass

Crested Wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought tolerant and winter hardy grass has a deep root system making it an excellent soil binder. Crested Wheatgrass is highly recommended for palatable forage production and is one of the most commonly cultivated grasses in the United States used for conservation and forage. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils and does well on shallow to deep, moderately coarse to fine-textured, moderately well to well-drained soils. Crested Wheatgrass is typically seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. Common varieties include Ephraim, Douglas, Kirk, and Roadcrest.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Crested Wheatgrass (Fairway Type)


Crested Wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced, bunchgrass that grows 12 to 36 inches tall. This drought tolerant and winter hardy grass has a deep root system making it an excellent soil binder. It is well-adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils. Crested Wheatgrass is commonly seeded in the arid sections of the western United States. The Fairway type was first recognized in 1950 as being different than other Crested Wheatgrasses. The Fairway type is shorter, denser, finer-stemmed, and less productive than Desert Wheatgrass at lower elevations and may exceed Desert Wheatgrass production at higher elevations. Newer varieties such as Ephraim and Roadcrest exhibit strong rhizome activity.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass


Larger and more robust than its two parents, Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum x Agropyron desertorum, provides improved forage quality, yield, seedling vigor, establishment, and root development. This hybrid cross between Crested Wheatgrass and Desert Wheatgrass is well adapted to sagebrush and juniper sites. Hycrest is a bunchgrass that grows to a height of 13 to 24 inches. Hycrest II is another common variation.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 335,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-10

Dahurian Wildrye

Dahurian Wildrye, Elymus dahuricus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 60 inches tall. Dahurian Wildrye has a deep root system allowing good drought tolerance that prefers well drained, fertile soils. It germinates quickly and regrows aggressively after cutting and grazing, thus providing excellent palatable forage and a reputation as a common component in pasture mixes. Dahurian Wildrye is located in the northeast, Midwest and northwestern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Desert Wheatgrass


Desert Wheatgrass, Agropyron desertorum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 12 to 36 inches tall. This species is later maturing and more productive than Crested Wheatgrass. It is also more drought tolerant than Crested or Fairway type Crested Wheatgrasses but less drought tolerant than Siberian Wheatgrass. It can be found in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Nordan is a common variety.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 311,200

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Festulolium

Festulolium, Festulolium braunii, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass. It is derived from a cross between Italian Ryegrass and Meadow Fescue. Its ease of establishment and management, drought resistance, rapid regrowth, and good disease resistance are combined with season-long productivity and high forage palatability. Festulolium has a mature height of 20 to 48 inches. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 150,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Filly Kentucky Bluegrass

Filly Kentucky Bluegrass, Poa pratensis, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass that grows 18 to 24 inches tall. It is a darker green foliage with longer leaves and pubescence at the bases of the leaves. In the west, Filly is a very abundant variety and used for hay and forage for sheep and cattle. In the east, other varieties are planted as pasture grass and not typically used for hay.

Seeds/Pound (approximate); 1,200,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Forage Tall Fescue

Forage Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is very adaptable to soil and moisture types. It is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass that grows between 24 and 60 inches tall. This deep-rooted bunchgrass is used for pasture, hay, turf, and erosion control. Forage varieties include Fawn, KY-31, Malma, and Suede. It will grow fairly well on soils low in fertility but it is better adapted to fertile conditions. Forage Tall Fescue can be grazed closely and does contain endophytes. Adaptation regions include all areas east of the Great Plains except southern and central Florida. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Fawn Tall Fescue

Fawn Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea, is a cool-season bunchgrass growing taller than 24 inches. This Tall Fescue variety is used for its palatability, excellent spring vigor, and deep root system which produces a tough sod when seeded heavily and grazed or mowed. Fawn is tolerant of poor drainage, alkalinity and salinity, and is also drought resistant. Production of forage is abundant with irrigation and high fertility levels. Fawn is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. The most frequent use of Forage Tall Fescue is for beef cattle and horse pastures.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 230,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-25 (New Seeding), 10-15 (Overseeding) 

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Intermediate Ryegrass

Intermediate Ryegrass, Lolium hybridium, is a short-lived, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass growing 18 to 36 inches tall. It is the result of a cross between Annual and Perennial Ryegrass. Intermediate Ryegrass has a finer leaf texture, is very heat tolerant, and is less winter hardy but higher yielding than Perennial Ryegrass. It is used for grazing, as a rotation crop, or hay production in northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 153,280

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 15-18

Intermediate Wheatgrass

Intermediate Wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. intermedia, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It has short rhizomes and a deep-feeding root system, preferring well-drained loamy to clayey textured soils. Intermediate Wheatgrass will tolerate slightly acidic to mildly saline conditions, can withstand moderate periodic flooding in the spring, and is very tolerant of fire. It has good palatability to livestock and wildlife and adapts well to the stabilization of disturbed soils. Rush and Oahe are common Intermediate Wheatgrass varieties used for forage and reclamation purposes. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 80,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Meadow Brome

Meadow Brome, Bromus biebersteinii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that spreads by short rhizomes. Meadow Brome can reach over 24 inches and up to 72 inches in height when irrigated. It is primarily used for rotational forage production and is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Meadow Brome is very winter hardy and it performs best on fertile, moderately deep to deep, well-drained soils. It is used in cool, moist climates across the Northern United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 85,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Meadow Foxtail

Meadow Foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis, is a cool-season, perennial bunchgrass that sometimes produces short rhizomes. This grass has a mature height of 12 to 36 inches. It is similar to Creeping Meadow Foxtail but is not aggressive and less productive. It can be found in moist meadows, ditches, and stream banks with poorly drained, acidic and salty soils. Meadow Foxtail is used for erosion control and as a nutritious and palatable forage in irrigated pastures and ranges at higher elevations or wet sites.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 650,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-5

Medium Red Clover

Medium Red Clover, Trifolium pratense L., is a short-lived perennial of 2-3 years and usually produces 2-3 cuttings of hay or silage per year with the most aggressive growth in the spring. Medium Red Clover is an aggressive establisher and can be seeded alone, in mixtures with grasses, frost-seeded with a nurse crop, or interseeded into an existing stand. It has a mature height of 24 to 36 inches. Forage quality is comparable with that of Alfalfa under similar harvest schedule.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 260,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-12

Mountain Brome

Mountain Brome, Bromus marginatus, is a short-lived, perennial, cool-season, native bunchgrass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. It is less aggressive than Smooth Brome. Mountain Brome prefers deep, fertile, mesic soils of medium to fine textures, but also survives on thin, dry or coarse soils, resulting in lower production levels. It is winter hardy and has good shade tolerance and fair tolerance to fire. Mountain Brome is well-adapted to the Northwestern regions, the foothills and mountains of the Intermountain West, and some Midwestern States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 65,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 10-15

Native Red Fescue

Native Red Fescue, Festuca rubra, is a low-growing shade and moist tolerant native grass. Native Red Fescue is sod-forming and has a mature height of 13 to 25 inches or more. It is used for the restoration of meadows and wetlands in the Northwest. It is considered to be native to the northern coastal regions of the United States but has been introduced throughout many other countries. It grows best in dry or wet habitats at elevations ranging from sea level to alpine in various soil compositions and fertility. Native Red Fescue is tolerant of shade and drought and is a very vigorous, dense native grass. Native Red Fescue can also be used as forage for cattle and horses. As a forage crop in alpine ranges, its foliage survives and retains its nutritional value through frost and cold temperatures. A common variety of Native Red Fescue is Molate.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 615,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 14-20

Orchardgrass

Orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata, is a persistent perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass, forming distinct flowering clumps 24 to 48 inches tall. It is one of the earliest species to grow in the spring making tremendous growth during cool conditions. It performs well on different textured soils ranging from clay to gravelly loams and on shallow to deep soils. The primary use of Orchardgrass is for forage production as it is highly palatable to all livestock. Common varieties of Orchardgrass include Latar, Paiute, Pennlate, and Potomac II.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 430,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-10

Perennial Ryegrass

Perennial Ryegrass, Lolium perenne, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass growing to a height of 18 to 36 inches. Perennial Ryegrass is one of the most widely used grasses and is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climatic conditions. With a leafy head and fine stem, it is considered very palatable and used for both forage and hay. Perennial Ryegrass is a proven performer in pastures in the northern area of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 227,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 4-8

Madonna Westerwold Tetraploid Annual Ryegrass

Madonna 4N Westerwold Tetraploid Ryegrass is a true annual. It produces high forage and seed yield. Madonna is crown rust resistant and has excellent palatability with ‘soft leaf’, high sugar, and high starch content. Madonna is widely adaptable for grazing, green chop, hay, inter-seeding, and as a cover crop. It is tolerable of heat and any available soil moisture will limit productivity in arid regions and during periods of drought stress.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 190,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 30-40 (broadcast), 15-22 (drilled)

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Nutrigraze Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass

Nutrigraze Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass establishes fast, has upright vegetative growth, and combines high forage production potential with excellent palatability and persistence. Nutrigraze can also be used as a nurse grass during Alfalfa establishment and inter-seeding into pastures annually to extend productivity. It does well in rotational grazing for equine, dairy, lamb, and beef, as well as hay production, silage and green chop production, and pasture inter-seeding. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 225,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 25-35 (pure stand), 10-15 (mixed with other grasses), 5-20 (mixed with legumes), 2-4 (used as nurse crop)

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Piper Sudangrass

Piper Sudangrass, Sorghum sudanese, is a variety of Sudangrass that is highly palatable and high-yielding. This summer annual forage is adapted to many types of soils and environments but should be used with caution when grazing or haying because of nitrates and prussic acid. Piper Sudangrass is a bunchgrass that has a mature height of over 24 inches. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 68,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-30

Pubescent Wheatgrass


Pubescent Wheatgrass, Elytrigia intermedia ssp. trichophorum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced grass growing 36 to 48 inches tall. This sod-forming grass has basal-type leaves and spreads by rhizomes. The strongest asset of Pubescent Wheatgrass is its ability to stay green into the summer months when soil moisture is adequate. It has adapted to a wide range of conditions including low-fertility soils and saline soils making it drought and winter tolerant. Pubescent Wheatgrass yields high-quality hay and pasture grass. Common varieties include Luna, Mandan, and Manska.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 95,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 7-10

Rapeseed

Besides their use as an oil crop, Rapeseed, Brassica napus, and other Brassicas including Canola are also used for forage. If pest suppression is an objective, Rapeseed should be used rather than Canola since the breakdown products of glucosinolates are thought to be a principal mechanism for pest control with these cover crops. Rapeseed has been shown to have biological activity against plant parasitic nematodes as well as weeds. Due to its rapid fall growth, Rapeseed captures high amounts of residual nitrogen and accumulates significant amounts of above ground biomass. Common forage varieties include Hobson and Napoleon.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 157,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-10

Sainfoin

Sainfoin, Onobrychis vicilfolia, is a winter-hardy, non-bloat legume with forage that is high in quality, very palatable, and readily consumed. It is deep-rooted and very drought resistant with hollow, succulent stems and pink flowers. The mature height of Sainfoin is between 8 to 36 inches. Sainfoin is adapted to dryland areas of the western United States. It matures faster than Alfalfa, providing highly nutritious early spring forage. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 30,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 35-45 (irrigated), 25-35 (dryland) 

Sandberg Bluegrass

Sandberg Bluegrass, Poa sandbergii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native Bluegrass reaching 24 to 48 inches in height. It thrives on a variety of soils from moderately coarse sands to fine clays. Sandberg Bluegrass is distributed throughout the western United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,000,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Sherman Big Bluegrass

Sherman Big Bluegrass, Poa ampla, is a long-lived, cool-season bunchgrass that was originally selected from a native range site in Sherman County, Oregon. It is a low-input species that requires as little as 11 inches of annual rainfall. Sherman Big Blue is valuable in soil stabilization, forage-rangeland seedings and dryland hay production, mine reclamation, and provides critical food and habitat for upland wildlife. The mature height is between 12 to 24 inches.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 920,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 2-4

Siberian Wheatgrass


Siberian Wheatgrass, Agropyron fragile ssp. sibericum, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass. Similar to Desert Wheatgrass, Siberian is more drought tolerant and retains its greenness and palatability later into the summer than standard, Fairway or even the hybrid cross types. The mature height of Siberian Wheatgrass is between 12 to 36 inches. Common varieties include Stabilizer and Vavilov II.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 205,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 6-11

Slender Wheatgrass

Slender Wheatgrass, Elymus trachucaulus ssp. trachycaulus, is a short-lived perennial, cool-season, native, tufted bunchgrass ranging in height from 24 to 30 inches. It has very short rhizomes which prefer loam and sandy loam soils. It is a relative species to the mountain and intermountain areas of the western United States and the northern Great Plains. Common varieties of Slender Wheatgrass include Firststrike, Pryor, and San Luis.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 135,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Smooth Brome

Smooth Brome, Bromus inermis, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced sod-forming grass that grows 24 to 48 inches tall and spreads by rhizomes. Frequently the leaves are marked by a transverse wrinkle resembling a “W” a short distance below the tip. It is resistant to drought and extreme temperatures. Smooth Brome is the most widely used of the cultivated Bromegrasses and it is distributed throughout most of the United States.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 140,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 8-12

Sorghum

Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, is widely cultivated as a grain and forage and is a drought tolerant bunchgrass type. It has a mature height of over 24 inches. It is typically used for milo grain production in the south and forage production in the north. Forage Sorghum is a hybrid with a very sweet stem, excellent leaf retention, and is highly palatable. Forage Sorghum has excellent foliar disease resistance and maintains a healthy canopy until harvest. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 16,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-40

Sorghum-Sudangrass

Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids, Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanese, are unrivaled for adding organic matter to worn-out soils. These tall, fast-growing, heat-loving summer annual grasses can smother weeds, suppress some nematode species and penetrate compacted sub-soil if mowed once. Sorghum-Sudangrass makes highly palatable and nutritious forage for grazing or hay. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 20,000-22,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 20-40

Streambank Wheatgrass

Streambank Wheatgrass, Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season, native grass growing from 12 to 36 inches tall. The leaves have a light green and grey tint and are somewhat curled on the ends. It is drought tolerant and commonly used for reclamation and forage production. Streambank Wheatgrass is found in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain region of the western United States. Sodar is a common variety of Streambank Wheatgrass.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 156,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10

Tall Wheatgrass


Tall Wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum, is a perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows 36 to 48 inches tall. It is a tall, coarse, late-maturing grass that is especially tolerant of saline or alkali soils and is adapted to either irrigation or sub-irrigation. Tall Wheatgrass also prefers soils with a high water table. Tall Wheatgrass is used in wildlife plantings where its tall, persistent, bunchy growth provides nesting sites and cover for upland gamebirds. Tall Wheatgrass occurs in the Rocky Mountain region from northern New Mexico to Canada. Common varieties include Alkar, Hercules, Hulk, and Jose. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 75,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 12-15

Teff Grass

Teff Grass, Eragrostis tef, is a summer annual forage used by livestock and commercial hay producers for its fast growing, high yielding, and competitive forage qualities. Teff is a warm-season, bunchgrass adapted across the United States as dry hay, silage or pasture for dairy cattle, beef cattle or horses. It has a wide range of geographic adaptation, the ability to produce competitive yields with low inputs, and superior forage quality versus other summer annual species. It can self-pollinate and can be harvested multiple times with fast growth and high tonnage. Teff has a mature height of 36 to 48 inches. Teff is an excellent choice as an emergency crop when weather delays occur or as a rescue crop when perennials have failed. 

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 1,300,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-7 (raw), 7-10 (coated) 

Timothy

Timothy, Phleum pratense, is a relatively short-lived perennial, cool-season, introduced bunchgrass that grows in erect stools or culms 20 to 40 inches tall. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system which thrives best on rich, moist bottomlands and on finer textured soils such as clay loams. It does not do well on coarser soils. Timothy is palatable, nutritious, and primarily used for hay but also makes good pasture and silage. It has adapted to a cool and humid climate and is distributed throughout the entire United States. Common varieties include Clair and Climax.

Seeds/Pound (approximate: 1,165,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 3-5

Western Wheatgrass

Western Wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii, is a long-lived perennial, cool-season native sod-forming grass growing in small clusters from 12 to 36 inches tall. It is common to moist, sometimes saline to saline-sodic, and medium to fine-textured soils. It has adapted to stabilizing disturbed soils because of its extensive, strong spreading rhizomes combined with a few deep roots. Western Wheatgrass is a good hay source and forage to domestic and wild animals across the Great Plains, southwest, and Intermountain region of the western United States. Common varieties include Arriba and Rosanna.

Seeds/Pound (approximate): 115,000

Seeding Rate (pounds/acre): 5-10